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Wireless medical sensor networks (MSNs) are a key enabling technology in e-healthcare that allows the data of a patient's vital body parameters to be collected by the wearable or implantable biosensors. However, the security and privacy protection of the collected data is a major unsolved issue, with challenges coming from the stringent resource constraints of MSN devices, and the high demand for both security/privacy and practicality. In this paper, we propose a lightweight and secure system for MSNs. The system employs hash-chain based key updating mechanism and proxy-protected signature technique to achieve efficient secure transmission and fine-grained data access control. Furthermore, we extend the system to provide backward secrecy and privacy preservation. Our system only requires symmetric-key encryption/decryption and hash operations and is thus suitable for the low-power sensor nodes. This paper also reports the experimental results of the proposed system in a network of resource-limited motes and laptop PCs, which show its efficiency in practice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first secure data transmission and access control system for MSNs until now.