This paper presents a method for calculating the steady state value of the short-circuit current in a fault to ground on a power system operated with grounded neutral, and the distribution of this current throughout the system. Constant impedances and electromotive forces in the system, and electrically short lines, are assumed, and line capacitance is neglected. If, at the time the fault to ground occurs, the distribution of the load current in the system is known, the total current in any portion of the system under the short circuit condition may be calculated by means of this method. By “total current” is meant here the sum of that part of the fault current which appears in the branch considered, and the normal current in the branch due to the loads. The latter current, of course, does not appear in the fault. Formulas and equivalent circuits for the usual three-phase transformer and generator connections used in practise, are given. The use of such circuits permits the calculation of the fault current and its distribution in the power system from an equivalent single-phase network. Since currents in a three-phase network under balanced conditions may also be calculated from a single-phase network, it is accordingly possible to calculate, entirely on a single-phase two-wire basis, the total current in any branch of a star grounded network for a ground on any phase. The setting up of equivalent 2-wire single-phase networks similar to those for the three-phase case is not generally possible where the number of phases exceeds three. The value of the method lies in its enabling one to calculate on a single-phase two-wire basis the short circuit current (steady state) due to a ground on a three-phase grounded neutral system, as regards both magnitude and distribution and taking into account all system loads. In the usual approximate method of making short-circuit calculations, a single-phase-to-neutral network is substituted for the actual network. W- ile this method involves less labor than that proposed in the paper, the results obtained by it are inexact, the effect of non-grounded loads being usually ignored. The method of the paper involves much less work than that required by three-phase calculations giving equal accuracy. An illustrative example is given.

Published in:
A.I.E.E., Journal of the  (Volume:43 ,  Issue: 11 )

Date of Publication: Nov. 1924