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Summary form only given. This paper presents the position control algorithm of a wheeled mobile robot (WMR) using an inertial navigation system (INS) and Kalman filter to realize it for an actual system. To adopt the INS in a control system, an error model is essentially required. This INS error model is derived by a Gauss-Newton method and it is tested by fitness diagnosis to check its availability. The position control algorithm including an INS and a Kalman filter with error model is pursued by computer simulation. The simulation study of the proposed scheme shows that position errors remarkably decrease when this INS and filter system are applied.