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The wireless industry has been experiencing an explosion of data traffic usage in recent years and is now facing an even bigger challenge, an astounding 1000-fold data traffic increase in a decade. The required traffic increase is in bits per second per square kilometer, which is equivalent to bits per second per Hertz per cell × Hertz × cell per square kilometer. The innovations through higher utilization of the spectrum (bits per second per Hertz per cell) and utilization of more bandwidth (Hertz) are quite limited: spectral efficiency of a point-to-point link is very close to the theoretical limits, and utilization of more bandwidth is a very costly solution in general. Hyper-dense deployment of heterogeneous and small cell networks (HetSNets) that increase cells per square kilometer by deploying more cells in a given area is a very promising technique as it would provide a huge capacity gain by bringing small base stations closer to mobile devices. This article presents a holistic view on hyperdense HetSNets, which include fundamental preference in future wireless systems, and technical challenges and recent technological breakthroughs made in such networks. Advancements in modeling and analysis tools for hyper-dense HetSNets are also introduced with some additional interference mitigation and higher spectrum utilization techniques. This article ends with a promising view on the hyper-dense HetSNets to meet the upcoming 1000× data challenge.