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An overview is presented of total ionizing dose (TID) effects in MOS and bipolar devices from a historical perspective, focusing primarily on work presented at the annual IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference (NSREC). From the founding of the IEEE NSREC in 1964 until ~1976, foundational work led to the discovery of TID effects in MOS devices, the characterization of basic charge transport and trapping processes in SiO2, and the development of the first generations of metal-gate radiation-hardened MOS technologies. From ~1977 until ~1985, significant progress was made in the understanding of critical defects and impurities that limit the radiation response of MOS devices. These include O vacancies in SiO2, dangling Si bonds at the Si/SiO2 interface, and hydrogen. In addition, radiation-hardened Si-gate CMOS technologies were developed. From ~1986 until ~1997, a significant focus was placed on understanding postirradiation effects in MOS devices and implementing hardness assurance test methods to qualify devices for use in space systems. Enhanced low-dose-rate sensitivity (ELDRS) was discovered and investigated in linear bipolar devices and integrated circuits. From ~1998 until the present, an increasing focus has been placed on theoretical studies enabled by rapidly advancing computational capabilities, modeling and simulation, effects in ultra-thin oxides and alternative dielectrics to SiO2, and in developing a comprehensive model of ELDRS.