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Numerical Analysis and Design of Single-Source Multicoil TMS for Deep and Focused Brain Stimulation

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5 Author(s)
Gomez, L. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng. & Comput. Sci., Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA ; Cajko, F. ; Hernandez-Garcia, L. ; Grbic, A.
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool for noninvasive stimulation of neuronal tissue used for research in cognitive neuroscience and to treat neurological disorders. Many TMS applications call for large electric fields to be sharply focused on regions that often lie deep inside the brain. Unfortunately, the fields generated by present-day TMS coils diffuse and decay rapidly as they penetrate into the head. As a result, they tend to stimulate relatively large regions of tissue near the brain surface. Earlier studies suggested that a focused TMS excitation can be attained using multiple nonuniformly fed coils in a multichannel array. We propose a systematic, genetic algorithm-based technique for synthesizing multichannel arrays that minimize the volume of the excited region required to achieve a prescribed penetration depth and maintain realistic values for the input driving currents. Because multichannel arrays are costly to build, we also propose a method to convert the multichannel arrays into single-channel ones while minimally materially deteriorating performance. Numerical results show that the new multi- and single-channel arrays stimulate tissue 2.4 cm into the head while exciting 3.0 and 2.6 times less volume than conventional Figure-8 coils, respectively.

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:60 ,  Issue: 10 )