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The key characteristics of quantum dot (QD)-enhanced multijunction solar cells (MJSC) are explored theoretically by focusing on the generation and recombination rates throughout the QD layers in the middle subcell. The quantum dots are modeled using an effective medium to describe light absorption, confinement, and recombination properties. We report an 8% increase in the short-circuit current density accompanied by a 3% drop in an open-circuit voltage for a QD- enhanced MJSC at 1 sun illumination (1 kW/m2) compared with a control MJSC without QD. The drop in an open-circuit voltage is due in part to the increased recombination rates in the depletion region, decreased carrier lifetimes in the QDs, and the increased recombination rates resulting from carrier escape and capture. Overall, these contribute to an absolute increase in efficiency of over 1% for the studied QD-enhanced MJSC design for a QD density of 125 QD/μm2.