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Error rate performance is analyzed for subcarrier noncoherent and differentially coherent modulated optical wireless communication systems over atmospheric turbulence channels. Both Gamma-Gamma and negative exponential channels are considered. Using a moment generating function approach, we obtain a unified bit-error rate expression for a family of noncoherent and differentially coherent modulations. We also analyze the symbol-error rate performance of subcarrier M-ary differential phase-shift keying and M -ary noncoherent frequency-shift keying modulated systems using the same frequency domain approach. Our asymptotic analysis reveals relative error rate performance of M -ary differential phase-shift keying and M-ary noncoherent frequency-shift keying in different channel conditions.