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Two- and three-dimensional structures with submicron dimensions, such as photonic crystals, patterned magnetic media, micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMs/NEMs), microfluidics chips, etc., are becoming ubiquitous in multiple applications across many research fields. The necessity to engineer these devices has inspired the development of novel nanofabrication and nano-patterning methods. This review describes major accomplishments in laser-based nano-patterning and nano-fabrication methods. In particular, it focuses on newly developed nano-patterning techniques based on the use of extreme ultraviolet laser light that contributes to the rapid and efficient fabrication of periodic nano-structures.