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This paper describes the design, commissioning, and evaluation of a fiber-optic strain sensor system for the structural health monitoring of a prestressed concrete posttensioned box girder railway bridge in Mumbai, India, which shows a number of well-documented structural problems. Preliminary laboratory trials to design the most appropriate sensor system that could be readily transported and used on site are described, followed by a description of load tests on the actual bridge undertaken in collaboration with Indian Railways and using locomotives of known weight. Results from the load tests using the optical system are compared with similar results obtained using electrical resistance strain gages. Conclusions are summarized concerning the integrity of the structure and for the future use of the sensor system for monitoring bridges of this type. Crack width measurements obtained during the load tests are also described.