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This study shows that a minimal introduction of structural defects to graphene can greatly enhance its sensitivity to molecular gas adsorption. The electrical conductance of graphene is enhanced by several orders of magnitude after defect generation by exposure to Ar plasma for just a few seconds. This enhancement in the response of the graphene is strongly dependent upon the extent of the defect site formation, reflecting the dominant effect of the defects on graphene's physicochemical sensitivity to molecular adsorption. Repeated cycles of the adsorption and desorption of gas molecules on the same graphene device are successfully demonstrated, implying the promise of the graphene device as a molecular sensing platform.