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A frequency warping approach to speaker normalization

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2 Author(s)
Li Lee ; MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA ; Rose, R.

In an effort to reduce the degradation in speech recognition performance caused by variation in vocal tract shape among speakers, a frequency warping approach to speaker normalization is investigated. A set of low complexity, maximum likelihood based frequency warping procedures have been applied to speaker normalization for a telephone based connected digit recognition task. This paper presents an efficient means for estimating a linear frequency warping factor and a simple mechanism for implementing frequency warping by modifying the filterbank in mel-frequency cepstrum feature analysis. An experimental study comparing these techniques to other well-known techniques for reducing variability is described. The results have shown that frequency warping is consistently able to reduce word error rate by 20% even for very short utterances

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Speech and Audio Processing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:6 ,  Issue: 1 )