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The importance of power quality issues, due to the significant losses for poor power quality, has resulted in research being focused on extending the concept of state estimation techniques into power quality issues. Under the umbrella of power quality state estimation (PQSE) as a smart algorithm, this paper focuses on one type, transient state estimation (TSE). The formulation of a new three-phase transient state estimator is given and its application to a realistic system demonstrated. The accuracy of the new transient state estimator is investigated by application to a test system to identify the cause of a voltage dip/sag in the presence of 5% measurement noise (normally distributed) in all the measurements.