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Two classes of turbo codes constructed on high-order finite fields are introduced. The codes are derived from a particular protograph sub-ensemble of the (2,3) regular low-density parity-check (LDPC) code ensemble. The first construction results in a parallel concatenation of two non-binary, time-variant accumulators. The second construction consists of the serial concatenation of a non-binary time-variant differentiator with a non-binary time-variant accumulator, and provides a highly structured flexible encoding scheme for (2,4) LDPC codes. A cycle graph representation is also provided. The proposed codes can be decoded efficiently either as LDPC codes (via belief propagation decoding on their bipartite graphs) or as turbo codes (via the forward-backward algorithm applied to the component code trellises) by means of the fast Fourier transform. The proposed codes provide remarkable coding gains (more than 1 dB at a codeword error rate 10-4) over binary LDPC and turbo codes in the moderate-short block length regime.