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Convergence theory for fuzzy c-means: Counterexamples and repairs

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4 Author(s)
Bezdek, J.C. ; Boeing Electronics Co., Seattle, WA, USA ; Hathaway, R.J. ; Sabin, M.J. ; Tucker, W.T.

A counterexample to the original incorrect convergence theorem for the fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithms (see J.C. Bezdak, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. and Math. Intell., vol.PAMI-2, no.1, pp.1-8, 1980) is provided. This counterexample establishes the existence of saddle points of the FCM objective function at locations other than the geometric centroid of fuzzy c-partition space. Counterexamples previously discussed by W.T. Tucker (1987) are summarized. The correct theorem is stated without proof: every FCM iterate sequence converges, at least along a subsequence, to either a local minimum or saddle point of the FCM objective function. Although Tucker's counterexamples and the corrected theory appear elsewhere, they are restated as a caution not to further propagate the original incorrect convergence statement.

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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:17 ,  Issue: 5 )