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Transmission lines, among the other electrical power system components, suffer from unexpected failures due to various random causes. These failures interrupt the reliability of the operation of the power system. When unpredicted faults occur protective systems are required to prevent the propagation of these faults and safeguard the system against the abnormal operation resulting from them. The functions of these protective systems are to detect and classify faults as well as to determine the location of the faulty line as in the voltage and/or current line magnitudes. Then after the protective relay sends a trip signal to a circuit breaker(s) in order to disconnect (isolate) the faulty line.The features of neural networks, such as their ability to learn, generalize and parallel processing, among others, have made their applications for many systems ideal. The use of neural networks as pattern classifiers is among their most common and powerful applications. This paper presents the use of back-propagation (BP) neural network architecture as an alternative method for fault detection, classification and isolation in a transmission line system. The main goal is the implementation of complete scheme for distance protection of a transmission line system. In order to perform this, the distance protection task is subdivided into different neural networks for fault detection, fault identification (classification) as well as fault location in different zones. Three common faults were discussed; single phase to ground faults, double phase faults and double phase to ground faults. The result provides a reliable and an attractive alternative approach for the development of a protection relaying system for the power transmission systems.