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Prediction of gas tungsten arc welding properties in mixtures of argon and hydrogen

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4 Author(s)
Lowke, John J. ; Div. of Telecommun. & Ind. Phys., CSIRO, Sydney, NSW, Australia ; Morrow, R. ; Haidar, J. ; Murphy, A.B.

A theory of gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) arcs that treats the tungsten electrode, the arc, and the workpiece as a unified system has been applied to make predictions in two dimensions of the temperature distributions in the arc, the tungsten cathode, and the workpiece, for any given arc current and gas mixture. Predictions of arc temperatures, radii, and voltages are compared for argon and mixtures of argon and hydrogen. It is found that arcs in gas mixtures containing hydrogen are more constricted and have a higher maximum temperature and arc voltage than arcs in pure argon. The addition of hydrogen also significantly increases the volume of molten material in the weld pool due to the higher thermal conductivity of argon-hydrogen mixtures at temperatures at which molecules of hydrogen dissociate. Predictions are also compared for workpieces of steel and aluminum. The volume of molten material is very much less for aluminum, despite its lower melting point, because of the higher thermal conductivity of aluminum. Predicted arc voltages as a function of current for a mixture of 10% hydrogen in argon are in good agreement with experimental results

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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:25 ,  Issue: 5 )