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End-to-end routing behavior in the Internet

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1 Author(s)
V. Paxson ; Network Res. Group, California Univ., Berkeley, CA, USA

The large-scale behavior of routing In the Internet has gone virtually without any formal study, the exceptions being Chinoy's (1993) analysis of the dynamics of Internet routing information, and work, similar in spirit, by Labovitz, Malan, and Jahanian (see Proc. SIGCOMM'97, 1997). We report on an analysis of 40000 end-to-end route measurements conducted using repeated “traceroutes” between 37 Internet sites. We analyze the routing behavior for pathological conditions, routing stability, and routing symmetry. For pathologies, we characterize the prevalence of routing loops, erroneous routing, infrastructure failures, and temporary outages. We find that the likelihood of encountering a major routing pathology more than doubled between the end of 1994 and the end of 1995, rising from 1.5% to 3.3%. For routing stability, we define two separate types of stability, “prevalence”, meaning the overall likelihood that a particular route is encountered, and “persistence”, the likelihood that a route remains unchanged over a long period of time. We find that Internet paths are heavily dominated by a single prevalent route, but that the time periods over which routes persist show wide variation, ranging from seconds up to days. About two-thirds of the Internet paths had routes persisting for either days or weeks. For routing symmetry, we look at the likelihood that a path through the Internet visits at least one different city in the two directions. At the end of 1995, this was the case half the time, and at least one different autonomous system was visited 30% of the time

Published in:

IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking  (Volume:5 ,  Issue: 5 )