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The observation and description of the living brain has attracted a lot of research over the past centuries. Many noninvasive imaging modalities have been developed, such as topographical techniques based on the electromagnetic field potential [i.e., electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG)], and tomography approaches including positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we will focus on functional MRI (fMRI) since it is widely deployed for clinical and cognitive neurosciences today, and it can reveal brain function due to neurovascular coupling (see ?From Brain Images to fMRI Time Series?). It has led to a much better understanding of brain function, including the description of brain areas with very specialized functions such as face recognition. These neuroscientific insights have been made possible by important methodological advances in MR physics, signal processing, and mathematical modeling.