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The design of low frequency underwater acoustic projectors: present status and future trends

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3 Author(s)
Decarpigny, J.-N. ; Inst. Superieur d''Electron. du Nord, Lille, France ; Hamonic, B. ; Wilson, O.B., Jr.

The difficulties that dominate low-frequency projector design problems in sonar and oceanographic applications are discussed. These are related to the size of the projector, the low radiation resistance, the acoustic interaction effects in arrays, and the requirements due to deep submergence. Low-frequency projectors are described and compared, and future trends associated with transducer shapes and dimensions and with the type of active materials used for the driving part are analyzed. The different modeling approaches are discussed, and an insight into the respective advantages and disadvantages of classical equivalent circuit models and numerical models-mainly those using the finite-element method-is provided. Several modeling examples are briefly introduced

Published in:

Oceanic Engineering, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:16 ,  Issue: 1 )