By Topic

Recycling batteries

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$33 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

2 Author(s)
F. C. McMichael ; Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA, USA ; C. Henderson

Hundreds of millions of large and billions of small batteries are used up annually in the service of all manner of electronic devices. Until recently, the tons of toxic materials in these batteries would wind up in the garbage, but the systematic collection and recycling of spent batteries is growing. Effective recycling involves changes at all stages of battery life, starting with production. Manufacturers should attempt to use recycled materials themselves, label batteries clearly for easier sorting, and ensure that batteries can be effectively recycled. Consumers need to take part in recycling programs by separating batteries from other wastes-doing so after their disposal in general municipal solid wastes is quite expensive per ton of battery material recovered. Retailers and shippers are needed to collect and return post-consumer batteries to recyclers. Finally, recycling plants and processes are needed for each of the various battery types and materials. The authors discuss materials management, battery design issues, systematic collection, recycling technologies, nickel and cadmium recovery, consumer cell recycling, detoxification costs, and future prospects

Published in:

IEEE Spectrum  (Volume:35 ,  Issue: 2 )