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The understanding of possible nonthermal bio-effects has been an open question during the last five decades. In this paper, the authors present a critical literature review of the models of the interaction mechanisms, together with an overview of all the publications finding positive results for in vitro and in vivo studies. The systematic approach consisted of pooling together the positive studies on the basis of the endpoints and the biological systems, to identify specific plausible targets of the action of the electromagnetic fields and the related pathways. Such a classification opens the way to the discussion of some hypotheses of interaction mechanisms considered as first transduction step. The authors conclude that only through a multiscale methodology it is possible to perform a comprehensive study of the nonthermal effects, based on affordable and realistic in silico models.