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Thirty-four million people are living with HIV worldwide, a disproportionate number of whom live in resource-limited settings. Proper clinical management of AIDS, the disease caused by HIV, requires regular monitoring of both the status of the host's immune system and levels of the virus in their blood. Therefore, more accessible technologies capable of performing a CD4+ T cell count and HIV viral load measurement in settings where HIV is most prevalent are desperately needed to enable better treatment strategies and ultimately quell the spread of the virus within populations. This review discusses micro- and nanotechnology solutions to performing these key clinical measurements in resource-limited settings.