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This study addresses online decomposition of high-density surface electromyograms (EMG) in real time. The proposed method is based on the previously published Convolution Kernel Compensation (CKC) technique and shares the same decomposition paradigm, i.e., compensation of motor unit action potentials and direct identification of motor unit (MU) discharges. In contrast to previously published version of CKC, which operates in batch mode and requires ~ 10 s of EMG signal, the real-time implementation begins with batch processing of ~ 3 s of the EMG signal in the initialization stage and continues on with iterative updating of the estimators of MU discharges as blocks of new EMG samples become available. Its detailed comparison to previously validated batch version of CKC and asymptotically Bayesian optimal linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) estimator demonstrates high agreement in identified MU discharges among all three techniques. In the case of synthetic surface EMG with 20 dB signal-to-noise ratio, MU discharges were identified with average sensitivity of 98%. In the case of experimental EMG, real-time CKC fully converged after initial 5 s of EMG recordings and real-time and batch CKC agreed on 90% of MU discharges, on average. The real-time CKC identified slightly fewer MUs than its batch version (experimental EMG, 4 MUs versus 5 MUs identified by batch CKC, on average), but required only 0.6 s of processing time on regular personal computer for each second of multichannel surface EMG.