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This paper presents a method that simultaneously estimates the two-dimensional (azimuth and elevation) direction of arrival (DOA) - along with the frequency - of a set of signals impinging on an array, with just a single snapshot. This methodology, an extension of a meta-heuristic approach for one-dimensional direction-of-arrival estimation, is valid for both uniform and nonuniform three-dimensional antenna arrays. In this paper, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to test the validity of the method on several array topologies, although other optimization algorithms can also be applied. The performance analysis included simulations focused on the convergence, accuracy, resolution, and computational cost of the proposed methodology. A comparison of the numerical results with the Cramer-Rao bound is also included, in order to illustrate the accuracy.
Date of Publication: Feb. 2013