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Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been widely adopted to classify event-related potential (ERP) in brain-computer interface (BCI). Good classification performance of the ERP-based BCI usually requires sufficient data recordings for effective training of the LDA classifier, and hence a long system calibration time which however may depress the system practicability and cause the users resistance to the BCI system. In this study, we introduce a spatial-temporal discriminant analysis (STDA) to ERP classification. As a multiway extension of the LDA, the STDA method tries to maximize the discriminant information between target and nontarget classes through finding two projection matrices from spatial and temporal dimensions collaboratively, which reduces effectively the feature dimensionality in the discriminant analysis, and hence decreases significantly the number of required training samples. The proposed STDA method was validated with dataset II of the BCI Competition III and dataset recorded from our own experiments, and compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms for ERP classification. Online experiments were additionally implemented for the validation. The superior classification performance in using few training samples shows that the STDA is effective to reduce the system calibration time and improve the classification accuracy, thereby enhancing the practicability of ERP-based BCI.