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The thermal stability of 7 nm Ti, Pt, and Ru interfacial adhesion layers between Cu film (10 nm) and a Ta barrier layer (4 nm) has been investigated. The barrier properties and interfacial stability have been evaluated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the surfaces before and after annealing, and all the surfaces are relatively smooth which excludes islanding or dewetting phenomena as a cause of the instability. The RBS showed no discernible diffusion across the adhesion layer/Ta and Ta/Si interfaces which provides a stable underlying layer. For a Ti interfacial layer, RBS indicates that during 400 °C annealing, Ti interdiffuses through the Cu film and accumulates at the surface. For the Pt/Cu system, Pt interdiffusion is detected which is less evident than Ti. Among the three adhesion layer candidates, Ru shows negligible diffusion into the Cu film indicating thermal stability at 400 °C.
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures (Volume:31 , Issue: 2 )
Date of Publication: Mar 2013