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The wireless-access networks of today will have to evolve in several ways in order to address the challenges and expectations of the future. New technology components will be introduced as part of the evolution of current wireless-access technologies, such as high-speed packet access (HSPA) and long-term evolution (LTE). However, additional components may also constitute future new wireless-access technologies, which may complement the evolved technologies. Examples of such new technology components are new ways of accessing spectrum and substantially higher frequency ranges, the introduction of massive antenna configurations, direct device-to-device communication, and ultradense deployments.