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In this Letter, monolayers of arrays of periodic polystyrene (PS) spheres are designed to couple onto the surface of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator to improve the light extraction efficiency. The enhancement of extraction efficiency up to 38% relative to the reference case without polystyrene spheres is achieved. Combining with the simulation for the transmission as well as its dispersion relation, detailed analysis of the effect of whispering gallery modes and diffraction on the extraction mechanism are given. As a result, the optimal diameter of 414 nm is obtained based on a trade-off between the transmission loss and the diffraction enhancement.