Skip to Main Content
Fully integrated 32-element symmetrical TX/RX 60-GHz RF integrated circuit (RFIC) with built-in self-test is presented. The RF bidirectional power-combining architecture with shared blocks and less than 1-dB millimeter-wave transmit/receive (T/R) switch loss achieves record size and power consumption. The RFIC features an 8-dB noise figure and - 28-dBm IP1 dB in RX mode, 10-dB power gain, and Psat of +3.5 dBm per chain in TX mode. Further included are a 2-bit phase shifter, an IF converter to/from 12 GHz, and an integrated frac-N synthesizer with push-push voltage-controlled oscillator having a-93 dBc@1-MHz phase noise at 48-GHz local oscillator port. A novel high dynamic range phase and power detector is presented with 2° and ±1-dB accuracy over PVT in phase and power. A detailed analysis of both phase quantization and power distribution is presented. Array impairments such as mismatch and coupling were compared for different topologies. The RFIC is packaged on alumina for testing and on low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) for antenna integration. The 6 × 6 patch antenna on LTCC including four dummies achieves a gain of 19 dBi with scanning of ± 30°. The total root mean square amplitude and phase error of the array is 0.8 dB and 6° , respectively, resulting in a maximum array beam degradation of 1.4 dB for 2-bit quantization. The RFIC area is 29 mm2 and it consumes 1.2 W/0.85 W at TX/RX, with a 29-dBm effective isotropic radiated power at -19-dB error vector magnitude.