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With the advances in sensing, transmission, and visualization technology, 3D information has become increasingly incorporated into real-world applications, from architecture, entertainment, and manufacturing to security. One of the fundamental requirements of these applications is the estimation of scene depth information, preferably in real time. Fields such as computer vision, computer graphics, and robotics have studied the extraction of 3D information for more than three decades, but it remains a challenging problem. Multimedia researchers must take the imperfectness of depth information and other multisensory information into consideration when designing their systems, making it a unique research opportunity. This special issue offers an overview of recent advances in 3D acquisition systems and the many multimedia applications that can benefit from 3D integration and understanding.