The dielectric functions of Cu(In, Ga)Se2(CIGS)-based polycrystalline layers with different Ga and Cu compositions have been determined by applying spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in a wide energy range of 0.7–6.5 eV. To suppress SE analysis errors induced by rough surface and compositional fluctuation, quite thin CIGS layers (<60 nm) with high uniformity toward the growth direction have been characterized using a self-consistent SE analysis method. We find that the optical model used in many previous studies is oversimplified particularly for the roughness/overlayer contribution, and all the artifacts arising from the simplified analysis have been removed almost completely in our approach. The CIGS dielectric functions with the variation of the Ga composition [x = Ga/(In + Ga)] revealed that (i) the whole CIGS dielectric function shifts toward higher energies with x, (ii) the band gap increases linearly with x without the band-gap bowing effect, and (iii) the overall absorption coefficients are significantly smaller than those reported earlier. Furthermore, the reduction of the Cu composition [y = Cu/(In + Ga)] leads to (i) the linear increase in the band-edge transition energy and (ii) the decrease in the absorption coefficient, due to the smaller interaction of the Cu 3d orbitals near the valence band maximum in the Cu-deficient layers. When y > 1, on the other hand, the free-carrier absorption increases drastically due to the formation of a semi-metallic CuxSe phase with a constant band gap in the CIGS component. In this study, by using a standard critical-point line-shape analysis, the critical point energies of the CIGS-based layers with different Ga and Cu compositions have been determined. Based on these results, we will discuss the optical transitions in CIGS-based polycrystalline materials.