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The electrostatic quadrupole lens, quadrupole accelerator and square rainbow lens as well as radio frequency quadrupole accelerator all have similar structure with four rod-like electrodes. Unlike the last one, which is powered by the alternating voltage, the first three are electrostatic devices. Each two adjacent electrodes of a common electrostatic lens have equal magnitude and opposite signs of their electric potentials, whereas, electric potentials of rainbow lens's electrodes are all equal in magnitude as well as in sign. If powered by the appropriate radio frequency instead of a DC voltage, the rainbow lens transforms into an ion beam accelerator which could cost-effectively broaden the available energy range of low energy ion beam facilities.
Date of Publication: April 2013