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When designing and qualifying hardened systems to an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) or electromagnetic interference standard, one needs a practical way to measure the effectiveness of the shield. It is not possible to test every system in a threat-level EMP test facility, so alternative methods have been developed. This paper reviews the advances made in low-level continuous wave measurement technology since the last EMC Special Issue published in 1978. These include system-level illumination as well as localized test methods for individual hardening elements. Available illuminating antennas for use on aircraft, ships, and ground-based communications systems are reviewed.