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Cramer-Rao Bounds for Joint RSS/DoA-Based Primary-User Localization in Cognitive Radio Networks

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3 Author(s)
Jun Wang ; Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA ; Jianshu Chen ; Danijela Cabric

Knowledge about the location of licensed primary-users (PU) could enable several key features in cognitive radio (CR) networks including improved spatio-temporal sensing, intelligent location-aware routing, as well as aiding spectrum policy enforcement. In this paper we consider the achievable accuracy of PU localization algorithms that jointly utilize received-signal-strength (RSS) and direction-of-arrival (DoA) measurements by evaluating the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB). Previous works evaluate the CRB for RSS-only and DoA-only localization algorithms separately and assume DoA estimation error variance is a fixed constant or rather independent of RSS. We derive the CRB for joint RSS/DoA-based PU localization algorithms based on the mathematical model of DoA estimation error variance as a function of RSS, for a given CR placement. The bound is compared with practical localization algorithms and the impact of several key parameters, such as number of nodes, number of antennas and samples, channel shadowing variance and correlation distance, on the achievable accuracy are thoroughly analyzed and discussed. We also derive the closed-form asymptotic CRB for uniform random CR placement, and perform theoretical and numerical studies on the required number of CRs such that the asymptotic CRB tightly approximates the numerical integration of the CRB for a given placement.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications  (Volume:12 ,  Issue: 3 )