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Most research on the management of scientific and engineering personnel in industrial organizations has tended to lump both groups into a single category of `professionals' assuming that they exhibit essentially the same behavioral characteristics. Consequently, managerial practices for utilizing, motivating, and `managing' these groups have been largely based on the assumption of the professional `stereotype'. This has created a lot of misunderstanding and friction in the professional-organizational relationship. This paper reports some findings of a larger study conducted to inquire into the role perceptions of scientists as a distinct group from engineers working in three large industrial corporations. Findings of this study point out that scientists and engineers do not, in fact, perceive their roles, expectations, need systems, and value orientations to be the same. This suggests that managerial policies, motivational strategies, and organizational designs for R&D should probably be based on `professional differentiation' between various groups of technical manpower. Implications of the study for the effective management of scientists and engineers are also discussed.