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One of the grand challenges currently facing engineering, life sciences, and medicine is the development of fully functional nanorobots capable of sensing, decision making, and actuation. These nanorobots may aid in cancer therapy, site-specific drug delivery, circulating diagnostics, advanced surgery, and tissue repair. In this paper, we will discuss, from a bioinspired perspective, the challenges currently facing nanorobotics, including core design, propulsion and power generation, sensing, actuation, control, decision making, and system integration. Using strategies inspired from microorganisms, we will discuss a potential bioengineered nanorobot for cancer therapy.