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The field of neuromodulation encompasses a wide spectrum of interventional technologies that modify pathological activity within the nervous system to achieve a therapeutic effect. Therapies including deep brain stimulation, intracranial cortical stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation have all shown promising results across a range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. While the mechanisms of therapeutic action are invariably different among these approaches, there are several fundamental neuroengineering challenges that are commonly applicable to improving neuromodulation efficacy. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of neuromodulation for brain disorders and discusses the challenges and opportunities available for clinicians and researchers interested in advancing neuromodulation therapies.