Skip to Main Content
This paper proposes a multi-objective phasor measurement units (PMUs) placement method in electric transmission grids. Further consideration is devoted to the early PMU placement formulations, to simultaneously determine minimum number of PMUs, as well as maximum measurement redundancy. Moreover, a new methodology is presented for valuation of observability under contingencies, including line outages and loss of PMUs. Furthermore, a generalized observability function is introduced to allocate the PMUs in presence of conventional non-synchronous measurements. The resultant optimization problem is solved using Cellular Learning Automata (CLA), introducing new CLA local rules to improve the optimization process. The developed method is conducted on IEEE standard test systems as well as the Iranian 230- and 400-kV transmission grids, followed by a discussion on results.