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To ensure the preservation of cultural heritage, artifacts such as paintings must be analyzed to diagnose physical frailties that could result in permanent damage. Advancements in digital imaging techniques and computer-aided analysis have greatly aided in such diagnoses but can limit the ability to work directly with the artifact in the field. This paper presents the implementation and application of ARtifact, a tablet-based augmented reality system that enables on-site visual analysis of the artifact in question. Utilizing real-time tracking of the artifact under observation, a user interacting with the tablet can study various layers of data registered with the physical object in situ. Theses layers, representing data acquired through various imaging modalities such as infrared thermography and ultraviolet fluorescence, provide the user with an augmented view of the artifact to aid in on-site diagnosis and restoration. Intuitive interaction techniques further enable targeted analysis of artifact-related data. We present a case study utilizing our tablet system to analyze a 16th century Italian hall and highlight the benefits of our approach.