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GPU-Accelerated Forward and Back-Projections With Spatially Varying Kernels for 3D DIRECT TOF PET Reconstruction

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4 Author(s)
Ha, S. ; Comput. Sci. Dept., Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY, USA ; Matej, S. ; Ispiryan, M. ; Mueller, K.

We describe a GPU-accelerated framework that efficiently models spatially (shift) variant system response kernels and performs forward- and back-projection operations with these kernels for the DIRECT (Direct Image Reconstruction for TOF) iterative reconstruction approach. Inherent challenges arise from the poor memory cache performance at non-axis aligned TOF directions. Focusing on the GPU memory access patterns, we utilize different kinds of GPU memory according to these patterns in order to maximize the memory cache performance. We also exploit the GPU instruction-level parallelism to efficiently hide long latencies from the memory operations. Our experiments indicate that our GPU implementation of the projection operators has slightly faster or approximately comparable time performance than FFT-based approaches using state-of-the-art FFTW routines. However, most importantly, our GPU framework can also efficiently handle any generic system response kernels, such as spatially symmetric and shift-variant as well as spatially asymmetric and shift-variant, both of which an FFT-based approach cannot cope with.

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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:60 ,  Issue: 1 )