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The amorphous NdCoxOy nanowire arrays have been successfully fabricated using anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membrane templates by suction filtration at subatmospheric pressure (SFSP). The morphology and chemical composition of NdCoxOy nanowires were characterised by a scanning electron microscope, a transmission electron microscope, selected area electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectra, respectively. The results reveal that there are plenty of NdCoxOy nanowires in the nanopores of the AAO template, and the NdCoxOy nanowires are all uniform in diameter. The concentration of reactants, the subatmospheric pressure and the co-precipitation time played an important role in the formation of NdCoxOy nanowires. The NdCoxOy nanowires with different diameters were fabricated with AAO of different nanopore sizes, the luminescence spectrum of NdCoxOy nanowires were doped with different Eu3+ concentrations and different morphological luminescence intensities of NdCoxOy:Eu3+ indicate that the method of SFSP is a feasible and controllable approach. The hysteresis loops of the Nd2O3, NdCoxOy and NdLaxOy nanowire arrays were carried out by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM); the magnetic behaviour of rare earth oxide can be modulated by doping the magnetic cobalt (Co) and non-magnetic Lanthanum (La) elements.