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Time-of-flight measurement techniques for airborne ultrasonic ranging

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6 Author(s)
Jackson, J.C. ; Centre for Ultrasonic Eng., Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK ; Summan, R. ; Dobie, G.I. ; Whiteley, S.M.
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Airborne ultrasonic ranging is used in a variety of different engineering applications for which other positional metrology techniques cannot be used, for example in closed-cell locations, when optical line of sight is limited, and when multipath effects preclude electromagnetic-based wireless systems. Although subject to fundamental physical limitations, e.g., because of the temperature dependence of acoustic velocity in air, these acoustic techniques often provide a cost-effective solution for applications in mobile robotics, structural inspection, and biomedical imaging. In this article, the different techniques and limitations of a range of airborne ultrasonic ranging approaches are reviewed, with an emphasis on the accuracy and repeatability of the measurements. Simple time-domain approaches are compared with their frequency-domain equivalents, and the use of hybrid models and biologically inspired approaches are discussed.

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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:60 ,  Issue: 2 )