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To cope with increasing domestic and overseas competition, the development of strategic emerging industries is the way of changing the mode of economic development and achieving endogenous growth, and seizing the commanding heights of science and technology. Strategic emerging industry is infant industry in the beginning of development, which needs support from outside including government. The government should give full play to its superiority, put on proper position and make a correct choice. The paper is aimed to summarize the characters of strategic emerging industries, explore the role and mechanism of government in promoting the development of strategic emerging industries. The government function mechanism consists of four aspects: Human Resources guarantee mechanism, Public service platform supporting mechanism model, Market environment regulatory mechanism, Innovative resources gathering mechanism. Based on the government function mechanism model, the paper provides the main strategy for economical decision- making.