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This paper describes a technique for tracking the three-dimensional (3-D) position of a cardiac catheter using sonomicrometry and the mathematical method of multidimensional scaling (MDS). Sonomicrometry is used to measure the distances between ultrasonic transceivers. MDS is then used to calculate the 3-D coordinates of the ultrasonic transceiver locations, including the catheter tip, from the measured distances. Feasibility of catheter tracking was initially studied using simulated data from a geometric model in which the actual coordinates of all transceivers were known. The method was then shown to be feasible in vivo by tracking a catheter-mounted piezoelectric transducer using seven reference crystals sewn to the epicardial surface of a sheep heart. Simulation results indicate that a catheter can be tracked with a root-mean-square (rms) error of 1.51±0.05 mm and an average-distance error of e=1.06±0.27 mm using 12 reference points. In vivo results showed acceptable stress values (G<0.05) for 95% of the data samples with an average-distance error of e=0.52±0.66 mm. These simulation and experimental results show that sonomicrometry and MDS can be used to accurately localize the 3-D position and track the motion of a catheter tip within the heart.
Date of Publication: Nov. 1997