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Achieving computer vision on microscale devices is a challenge. On these platforms, the power and mass constraints are severe enough for even the most common computations (matrix manipulations, convolution, etc.) to be difficult. This paper proposes and analyzes a class of miniature vision sensors that can help overcome these constraints. These sensors reduce power requirements through template-based optical convolution, and they enable a wide field-of-view within a small form through a refractive optical design. We describe the tradeoffs between the field-of-view, volume, and mass of these sensors and we provide analytic tools to navigate the design space. We demonstrate milliscale prototypes for computer vision tasks such as locating edges, tracking targets, and detecting faces. Finally, we utilize photolithographic fabrication tools to further miniaturize the optical designs and demonstrate fiducial detection onboard a small autonomous air vehicle.