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Efficient verification of real-time systems: compact data structure and state-space reduction

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4 Author(s)
K. G. Larsen ; Dept. of Math. & Comput. Sci., Aalborg Univ., Denmark ; F. Larsson ; P. Pettersson ; W. Yi

During the past few years, a number of verification tools have been developed for real-time systems in the framework of timed automata (e.g. KRONOS and UPPAAL). One of the major problems in applying these tools to industrial-size systems is the huge memory-usage for the exploration of the state-space of a network (or product) of timed automata, as the model-checkers must keep information on not only the control structure of the automata but also the clock values specified by clock constraints. In this paper, we present a compact data structure for representing clock constraints. The data structure is based on an O(n/sup 3/) algorithm which, given a constraint system over real-valued variables consisting of bounds on differences, constructs an equivalent system with a minimal number of constraints. In addition, we have developed an on-the-fly, reduction technique to minimize the space-usage. Based on static analysis of the control structure of a network of timed automata, we are able to compute a set of symbolic states that cover all the dynamic loops of the network in an on-the-fly searching algorithm, and thus ensure termination in reachability analysis. The two techniques and their combination have been implemented in the tool UPPAAL. Our experimental results demonstrate that the techniques result in truly significant space-reductions: for six examples from the literature, the space saving is between 75% and 94%, and in (nearly) all examples time-performance is improved. Also noteworthy is the observation that the two techniques are completely orthogonal.

Published in:

Proceedings Real-Time Systems Symposium

Date of Conference:

2-5 Dec. 1997