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Verification on the Dose Profile Variation of a 3-D—NIPAM Polymer Gel Dosimeter

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3 Author(s)
Bor-Tsung Hsieh ; Dept. of Med. Imaging & Radiol. Sci., Central Taiwan Univ. of Sci. & Technol. (CTUST), Taichung, Taiwan ; Wu, J. ; Yuan-Jen Chang

A gel dosimeter is a three-dimensional (3-D) device that is used in radiotherapy. It is more efficient than traditional one-dimensional and two-dimensional dosimeters because it can be used in complicated radiation therapy applications. However, the achievement of temporal and spatial stabilities for gel dosimeters remains challenging in clinical applications because the fabrication process affects the polymerization reaction during irradiation. This study investigated the dose profile variation of an N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel dosimeter by using the 3-D optical computed tomography scanner OCTOPUSTM 10X (MGS Research Inc.). Two acrylic containers (diameter=10, height=10, and diameter=15, height=15cm ) filled with polymer gel (gelatin: 5%, NIPAM: 5%, Bis: 3%, THPC: 5 mM) were irradiated by using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIEMENS Oncor Impression, 6 MV Photo beam). The treatment field was a 3 cm 3 cm square field, and the prescribed dose was 5 Gy. The results of the reconstruction line profile showed that the uncertainty of non-irradiated gel is less than 1.3% when a container with 10 cm diameters cooled in a refrigerator with a water bath. The maximum uncertainties of the irradiated gel at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-irradiation were 2.9%, 2.9%, and 3.1%, respectively. However, the maximum uncertainty of the non-irradiated gel dosimeter increased to 3% when a container with 15 cm diameter was cooled in the same refrigerator. After irradiation, the maximum uncertainties of the irradiated gel at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-irradiation were 13.1%, 13.7%, and 12.95%, respectively. The uncertainty differences for gels at different container sizes were attributed to the different cooling rates that were applied to the gels. The time required for large gel containers to cool in the refrigerator was more than 10 h, whereas the cooling process only took 4.2 h for gels in a small container. The time difference produced different temperature hist- ries for gels and may result in changes in gel sensitivity. Given the thermally induced pre-radiation polymerization, the time difference resulted in a deviation in dose profiles. This study reports that thermal control during gel preparation should be carefully performed for clinical applications to achieve a more accurate dose distribution in 3-D image reconstruction.

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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:60 ,  Issue: 2 )