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Numerical models are established to investigate the influence of transparent coating hardness on the laser-generated thermoelastic force source and ultrasonic waves in coating-substrate systems by using finite element method. With the increase of coating hardness, the characteristic of longitudinal wave in substrate is more obvious due to the gradual increase of reactive force produced by coating constraint; the directivity patterns of longitudinal wave show that the energy concentration area transfers from bilateral area to the axial direction area gradually. Therefore, the directivity pattern can be regulated to obtain the better ultrasonic signals by coating different hardness materials. It is significant for further development of the experiment in composite evaluation and in extreme condition.