By Topic

Embedded Medical Devices: Pressure Volume Loops in Rodents

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

7 Author(s)
Loeffler, K. ; Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA ; Porterfield, J.E. ; Larson, E.R. ; Escobedo, D.
more authors

Man has been instrumenting the human body with electrical devices since the early 1800s. McWilliam built an electrical stimulator of the heart in 1889. In the 1930s, Hyman built and patented multiple versions of an artificial pacemaker. The first one was operated by a hand crank and spring motor to generate and supply the electricity. Around 1960, battery powered pacemakers arrived on the scene. There are five companies that currently provide pacemakers: Biotronik, Boston Scientific, Medtronic, St. Jude Medical, and Sorin. Hearing aids, glucose monitors, artificial joints and limbs, and biopotentials monitors are additional devices that can be implanted.

Published in:

Potentials, IEEE  (Volume:32 ,  Issue: 1 )